How can I compile and use my own glibc C standard library from source? (2023)

Last tested on Ubuntu 20.04 with glibc development version 2.33.9000 (seeglibc/version.h) on June 27, 2021.

How to download and compile glibc and run its benchmarks

You can get the glibc source code manually here:

git-Klon cd glibc git checkout master

Third-party mirror on GitHub:

See also:


If you want to create glibc and its bench tests manually, do the following:

# IMPORTANT: Start AT THE SAME DIRECTORY LEVEL as the `glibc` source # directory, NOT inside the `glibc` source directory! In other words, if # you are in the correct directory, running `ls` will show the glibc source directory # (that you just cloned) in the directory you are in. mkdir -p glibc-build mkdir -p glibc -install cd glibc-build ../glibc/configure --prefix="$(realpath "../glibc-install)")" time make -j8 # compile with 8 threads ( works); On a fast laptop this takes around 3 minutes. time make install # (optional: install in the `glibc-install` directory you created) # Also create the bench tests (all inside the `glibc/benchtests` directory); # See the 'glibc/benchtests/Makefile' makefile for more build commands. time make bench-build -j8 # You now have this executable that you can use, for example, for malloc speed tests!: # ../glibc-build/benchtests/bench-malloc-thread # To compile **y run* * all glibc bank tests, flag: timestamp bank


  3. - I learned a lot by studying this makefile target:
    $(glibc_install_dir)/lib/ @echo "Build GNU libc... go get a cup of coffee... this will take time!" mkdir -p $(glibc_build_dir) cd $(glibc_build_dir) && \ ../glibc/configure --prefix=$(glibc_install_dir) && \ make $(parallel_flags) && \ make install [ -x $(glibc_build_dir)/benchtests/bench -malloc-thread ] && echo "The GNU libc benchmarking utility is ready!" || echo "Could not find GNU benchmarking utility libc! Unable to collect benchmark results"
  4. How can I compile and use my own standard glibc C library from source?

Keywords: how to build and run glibc and its bench tests, including malloc bench tests, from source; Compile glibc from source on Linux Ubuntu

oMakefilewill exist in yoursbuild-glibcdirectory if theto set upThe script completes successfully.

If meanwhile everything seems to have gone wellto set upand not yetMakefile, then you probably missed a quirk:

when making oneto set upfor glibc you are normally expected to provide an alternative--Prefix, since the installation is in the default location (/usr/local) can paralyze the system. If you do not provide one, you must activate it--disable-sanity-checks.

If this is not the case, look for aconfig.logfile and read its contents.

Configuration 1: glibc without dedicated GCC

This setup might work and is fast as it doesn't rebuild the entire GCC toolchain, just glibc.

The only problem I have with this setup is that I haven't found a good way to use runtime objects likecrt1.o,to draw, zcrtn.oprovided by our glibc, and I'm using the host's one for now. This is mentioned at: These objects do the initial configuration that glibc depends on, so I wouldn't be surprised if things are pretty bad, wonderful and incredibly subtle forms. See possible solutions below.

Compile glibc and install it locally:

git clone git:// cd glibc git checkout glibc-2.32 mkdir build cd build export glibc_install="$(pwd)/install" ../configure --prefix "$glibc_install" make - j `nproc` hacer instalar -j `nproc`

Configuration 1: Check the build


(Video) How To Compile Your Own C/C++ Library (gcc/mingw)

#define _GNU_SOURCE #include <assert.h> #include <gnu/libc-version.h> #include <stdatomic.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <threads.h> atomic_int acnt; cont int; int f(void* thr_data) { for(int n = 0; n < 1000; ++n) { ++cnt; ++accent; } return 0; } int main(int argc, char **argv) { /* Check the basic library version. */ printf("gnu_get_libc_version() = %s\n", gnu_get_libc_version()); /* Exercise thrd_create from -pthread, * which is not present in glibc 2.27 on Ubuntu 18.04. * */ thrd_t thr[10]; for ( int n = 0 ; n < 10 ; ++ n ) thrd_create ( & thr [ n ] , f , NULL ) ; for ( int n = 0 ; n < 10 ; ++n ) thrd_join ( thr [ n ] , NULL ) ; printf("The number of atoms is %u\n", acnt); printf("The non-atomic counter is %u\n", cnt); } }

Compile and run

#!/usr/bin/env bash set -eux gcc \ -L "${glibc_install}/lib" \ -I "${glibc_install}/include" \ -Wl,--rpath="${glibc_install}/lib " \ -Wl,--dynamic-linker="${glibc_install}/lib/" \ -std=c11 \ -o test_glibc.out \ -v \ test_glibc.c \ -philo\; ldd ./test_glibc.out ./test_glibc.out

Command adapted from

The program generates what is expected:

gnu_get_libc_version() = 2.32 Atomic counter is 10000 Non-atomic counter is 8674

lddThe output confirms that thelddand the newly created libraries are used as expected:

+ ldd test_glibc.out (0x00007ffe4bfd3000) => /home/ciro/glibc/build/install/lib/ (0x00007fc12ed92000) => /home/ciro/glibc/build/install/lib/ (0x00007fc12e9dc000) /home/ciro/glibc/build/install/lib/ => /lib64/ (0x00007fc12f1b3000)

oCCGThe debug output of the build shows that my host's runtime objects were used, which is bad as mentioned, but I don't know how to fix this, for example, it contains:


Configuration 1: Change glibc

Now we change glibc with:

diferencia --git a/nptl/thrd_create.c b/nptl/thrd_create.c índice 113ba0d93e..b00f088abb 100644 --- a/nptl/thrd_create.c +++ b/nptl/thrd_create.c @@ -16,11 + 16,14 @@ Licença junto com eine GNU-C-Bibliothek; caso contrario, consultar <>. */ +#include <stdio.h> + #include "thrd_priv.h" int thrd_create (thrd_t *thr, thrd_start_t func, void *arg) { + puts("gehackt"); _Static_assert (tamaño de (thr) == tamaño de (pthread_t), "tamaño de (thr) != tamaño de (pthread_t)");

Then rebuild and reinstall glibc and recompile and run our program again:

cd glibc/build make -j `nproc` make -j `nproc` install ./

and seehackedprinted a few times as expected.

This further confirms that we are in fact using the glibc we compiled and not the one on the host.

Tested on Ubuntu 20.10.

Configuration 1: Try to use the correct onecrt*objects suggests adding it--sysrootFor himCCGcommand but:

  • doesn't actually change the objects to ours according to the protocols
  • and causes the build to fail with/usr/bin/ld: could not find because thesystem rootis used for this GCC-provided object that we don't have in this sysroot because we only build glibc

At ZeZNiQ provides a solution that is probably correct in passing:


followed by all objects. You just need to extract the correct objects from the full command with it-nostartfilesand send them manually.

(Video) How to write your own code libraries in C.

For example, on my AMD64 machine, the objects used were different than the 32-bit instruction, so this is a bit tricky.


  • How to change GCC's default search directory to crti.o?

Configuration 2: Crosstool NG primitive configuration

This is an alternative to configuration 1 and the most correct configuration I've gotten so far - as far as I can see, everything is correct, including C runtime objects likecrt1.o,to draw, zcrtn.o.

In this configuration, we will build a fully dedicated GCC toolchain using the desired glibc.

The only downside to this method is that it takes longer to compile. But I wouldn't risk a production setup with less.

crosstool-NG is a set of scripts that will download and compile everything for us from source, including gcc, glibc, and binutils.

Yes, the GCC build system is so bad that we need a separate project for it.

This configuration is simply not perfect as crosstool-NG supports creating executables without-WlFlags, which seems strange since we build GCC ourselves. But everything seems to be working, so this is just an inconvenience.

Get crosstool-NG, configure it and build it:

git-Klon cd crosstool-ng git checkout a6580b8e8b55345a5a342b5bd96e42c83e640ac5 exportar CT_PREFIX="$(pwd)/.build/install" exportar PATH="/usr/lib/ccache: $ {RUTA}" ./bootstrap ./configure --enable-local make -j `nproc` ./ct-ng x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu ./ct-ng menuconfig env -u LD_LIBRARY_PATH hora ./ct-ng construir CT_JOBS=`nproc`

Construction takes around thirty minutes to two hours.

The only mandatory configuration option I can see is adapting to the host kernel version to use the correct kernel headers. Find your host's kernel version with:

uname -a

what it shows me:


also reinmenu settingsYes:

(Video) C++23 Standard Library Preview - Jeff Garland - CppCon 2021

  • work system
    • linux version

then I choose:


This is the first version equal or previous. It must be older as the kernel is backward compatible.

Configuration 2: optional configurations

o.configwith which we generate./ct-ng x86_64-unknown-linux-gnudeadline:


To change that, inmenu settingsDisapproval gesture:

  • C library
  • glibc version

save the.config, and continue with the build.

Or if you want to use your own glibc source, for example to use glibc from the latest git, do the following:

  • Various paths and options.
    • Try the features marked as EXPERIMENTAL: set to true
  • C library
    • glibc-Those
      • custom location: Say yes
      • custom location
        • custom place of origin: points to a directory containing your glibc source

where glibc was cloned as:

git clone git:// cd glibc git checkout glibc-2.28

Configuration 2: test

After creating the toolchain you want, test it with:

#!/usr/bin/env bash set -eux install_dir="${CT_PREFIX}/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu" PATH="${PATH}:${install_dir}/bin" \ x86_64-unknown-linux- gnu-gcc \ -Wl,--dynamic-linker="${install_dir}/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/sysroot/lib/" \ -Wl,--rpath ="${install_dir}/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/sysroot/lib" \ -v \ -o test_glibc.out \ test_glibc.c \ -pthread \ ; ldd test_glibc.out ./test_glibc.out

Everything seems to work as in configuration 1, except now the correct runtime objects are used:

COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS=/home/ciro/crosstool-ng/.build/install/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/bin/../x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/sysroot/usr/lib/../lib64/crt1. o

Configuration 2: An attempt to recompile glibc efficiently failed

This doesn't seem to be possible with crosstool-NG, as explained below.

If you are just remodeling;

env -u LD_LIBRARY_PATH hora ./ct-ng build CT_JOBS=`nproc`

So changes to the custom glibc source location will be honored, but it will build everything from scratch, making it unusable for iterative development.

If we do:

(Video) Building GCC-9.1.0 from Source

./ct-ng Listen text

gives a good overview of the build steps:

Verfügbare Build-Schritte in dieser Reihenfolge: - Companion_Tools_for_Build - Companion_Libs_for_Build - Binutils_for_Build - Companion_Tools_for_Host - Companion_Libs_for_Host - Binutils_for_Host - cc_Core_Pass_1 - Kernel_Headers - Libc_Start_Files - cc_Core_Pass_2 - Libc - cc_for_Build - cc_for_Host - libc_post_cc - Companion_Libs_for_Build " als Aktion, um genau diesen Schritt auszuführen. Verwenden Sie "+<paso>" as acción para ir a este paso Utilice "<paso>+" as acción para empezar desde este paso.

So we see that mainly glibc steps are intertwined with multiple gcc steps.libc_start_filesIt comes beforecc_core_pass_2, which is probably the most expensive step along withcc_core_pass_1.

To build only one step, you must first activate "Save Intermediate Steps"..configFirst build option:

  • Various paths and options.
    • cross debugging tool
      • Save intermediate steps

and then you can try:

env -u LD_LIBRARY_PATH hora ./ct-ng libc+ -j`nproc`

but unfortunately the+required as mentioned in:

Note, however, that a reboot as an intermediate step will restore the installation directory to the state it was in during this step. That means you have a newly built libc, but not a final compiler built with that libc (and therefore not a build library like libstdc++ either).

and basically it still makes the rebuild too slow to be viable for development and I don't see how to get past this without fixing Crosstool-NG.

also of thelibrarythe step didn't seem to copy the source backcustom place of origin, which makes this method even more useless.

Bono: stdlibc++

An added bonus if you're also interested in the C++ standard library: how can I edit and rebuild the source of the GCC libstdc++ C++ standard library?

Addendum to Ciro's answer/solution above

@CiroSantilli Editing your answer returns "The proposed edit queue is full." The ldd script that you call on theprueba_glibc.shThe script points to the host's dynamic linker:/home/ciro/glibc/build/install/lib/ => /lib64/ (0x00007fc12f1b3000). To fix this,, changelddPro${glibc_install}/bin/ldd. To do this you need to add the buildcrt*.or also to the script:

-nostartfiles \ ${glibc_install}/lib/crti.o \ ${glibc_install}/lib/crtn.o \ ${glibc_install}/lib/crt1.o \

My work continues on my GNU/Linux i386/i686 machine (32 bit x86 Arch)

#!/usr/bin/env bash set -eux gcc \ -L "${glibc_install}/lib" \ -I "${glibc_install}/include" \ -Wl,--rpath="${glibc_install}/lib " \ -Wl,--dynamic-linker="${glibc_install}/lib/" \ -std=c11 \ -nostartfiles \ ${glibc_install}/lib/crti.o \ ${glibc_install }/lib/crtn.o \ ${glibc_install}/lib/crt1.o \ -o test_glibc.out \ -v \ test_glibc.c \ -pthread \ ; ${glibc_install}/bin/ldd ./test_glibc.out ./test_glibc.out


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4.1. Obtaining and compiling the source
  1. Get the source from; as I said, I used version 2.2. ...
  2. Unpack the source: ...
  3. In addition, you will need a package called "linuxthreads," found in the linuxthreads directory on ...
  4. Copy the linuxthreads package to your glibc source directory:

How long does it take to compile glibc? ›

The biggest package (Glibc) will take approximately 20 minutes on the fastest systems, but could take up to three days on slower systems! Instead of providing actual times, the Standard Build Unit (SBU) measure will be used instead. The SBU measure works as follows.

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  2. Unpack the source, eg.: ...
  3. Change to the created directory: ...
  4. Take care that the binaries are built static: ...
  5. Run the configure script: ...
  6. Compile the stuff: ...
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Mar 19, 2004

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  3. Step 3: Compiling the Source Code. ...
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  3. Press i to go to insert mode. Type your program.
  4. 4.To save the file: Press Esc button and then type :wq. It will save the file. ...
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How to install glibc using yum? ›

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  2. Write your first program on bash. ...
  3. Compile and Run Program.

What commands are used to compile the C program in Linux? ›

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How to use your own library in C? ›

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  1. (1) Create an INTERFACE to your library: mylib. ...
  2. (2) Create an IMPLEMENTATION of your library: mylib. ...
  3. (3) Create a LIBRARY OBJECT FILE (.o) that can be linked with programs that use your library.
  4. (3a) or create a SHARED OBJECT FILE (.

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  1. Step 1: Compiling with Position Independent Code. We need to compile our library source code into position-independent code (PIC): 1 $ gcc -c -Wall -Werror -fpic foo.c.
  2. Step 2: Creating a shared library from an object file. ...
  3. Step 3: Linking with a shared library. ...
  4. Step 4: Making the library available at runtime.

How the source code is compiled? ›

A compiler takes the program code (source code) and converts the source code to a machine language module (called an object file). Another specialized program, called a linker, combines this object file with other previously compiled object files (in particular run-time modules) to create an executable file.

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How do I find glibc library? ›

The easiest way is to use ldd command which comes with glibc and in most cases it will print the same version as glibc:
  1. $ ldd --version ldd (Ubuntu GLIBC 2.30-0ubuntu2.1) 2.30.
  2. $ ldd `which ls` | grep libc => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ (0x00007f918034d000)
  3. $ /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.
Apr 26, 2020

Does Linux kernel use glibc? ›

The kernel never depends on glibc. You can run programs on Linux that use a different libc (like "musl") or that don't use a libc at all. Thanks. And glibc is not listed as a requirement for compiling the Linux kernel.

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Under musl, constructors only run the first time a library is run, and destructors only run on exit. Under glibc, the contents of all static storage in a library will be reset to its original state if the library is unloaded and reloaded. Under musl, it will never be reset.

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1 Answer
  1. Copy the assembly code.
  2. Open notepad.
  3. Paste the code.
  4. Save on your desktop as "assembly. asm"
  5. Hold shift, right click on your desktop, select "Open command window here" from the dropdown.
  6. Enter the following two commands:
  7. nasm -f win32 assembly. asm -o test.o.
  8. ld test.o -o assembly.exe.
Apr 15, 2019

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  2. Step 2: Extract the Source Code.
  3. Step 3: Install Required Packages.
  4. Step 4: Configure Kernel.
  5. Step 5: Build the Kernel.
  6. Step 6: Update the Bootloader (Optional)
  7. Step 7: Reboot and Verify Kernel Version.
Nov 12, 2020

How to build binutils from source? ›

Build and Install binutils from source
  1. Step 1: Get source code of binutils.
  2. Step 2: Configure binutils.
  3. Step 3: Build and install binutils.
  4. Summary of commands.

How do I compile a Fltk program? ›

Compiling Programs with Microsoft Visual C++

In Visual C++ you will need to tell the compiler where to find the FLTK header files. This can be done by selecting "Settings" from the "Project" menu and then changing the "Preprocessor" settings under the "C/C++" tab. You will also need to add the FLTK (FLTK. LIB or FLTKD.

How do I compile and load a Linux kernel? ›

Let us see all steps in details.
  1. Get the latest Linux kernel source code. ...
  2. Extract tar.xz file. ...
  3. Configure the Linux kernel features and modules. ...
  4. Install the required compilers and other tools. ...
  5. Configuring the kernel. ...
  6. How to compile a Linux Kernel. ...
  7. Update grub config.
Sep 12, 2022

Should you compile your own kernel? ›

The advantages of compiling your own kernel include being able to tune the kernel to your specific hardware, and ending up with a smaller kernel. You may also need to compile your own kernel if the default kernel does not support some specific hardware you have.

How do I compile a single kernel module? ›

How to compile Linux kernel modules
  1. Step 1 – Get Linux kernel headers source code. You need running kernel source code; if you don't have a source code, download it from ...
  2. Step 2 – Creating a Makefile. ...
  3. Step 3 – Compile Linux kernel module. ...
  4. Step 4 – Loading Linux kernel module.
Apr 8, 2022

What are alternatives to binutils? ›

The best alternative is elfutils, which is both free and Open Source.

How to build GDB from source? ›

The simplest way to configure and build GDB is to run configure from the `gdb- version-number ' source directory, which in this example is the `gdb-5.1. 1' directory. First switch to the `gdb- version-number ' source directory if you are not already in it; then run configure .

How do you build a source go? ›

This topic describes how to build and run Go from source code.
Install Go compiler binaries for bootstrap
  1. Download a recent binary release of Go.
  2. Cross-compile a toolchain using a system with a working Go installation.
  3. Use gccgo.
  4. Compile a toolchain from Go 1.4, the last Go release with a compiler written in C.

How to use FLTK in Linux? ›


You should be able to execute "configure", "make", and "sudo make install" to install fltk in /usr/local/lib and /usr/local/include. If you don't want the files installed in /usr/local, change the approriate variables in the Makefile before you build.

How do I use Fltk on Windows? ›

At home on Windows
  1. Download the fltk-1.3. 2 installer here.
  2. Run the installer. It will install FLTK in C:\Program Files\fltk-1.3. ...
  3. Compile your project. If you don't get errors about the file "FL/fl. h" not existing, etc., then you're done!
Sep 26, 2014


1. Back To Basics: C++ Containers
2. Linux by example - Building glibc and configure time and locale
(Daniel Persson)
3. Real-time Programming with the C++ Standard Library - Timur Doumler - CppCon 2021
4. C Language Series - Module 11: The C Standard Library & some more I/O functions
(The Coding Companion)
5. Before Main: How Executables Work on Linux
(Ryan Levick)
6. Write Better Code! | How to Create Shared Libraries in C/C++
(Low Level Learning)


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